Thursday 150416

Workout

3x

500m Row
25-45 lbs Thrusters
15-Pull-ups

From The New York Times

The Right Dose of Exercise for a Longer Life

CreditGetty Images

Exercise has had a Goldilocks problem, with experts debating just how much exercise is too little, too much or just the right amount to improve health and longevity. Two new, impressively large-scale studies provide some clarity, suggesting that the ideal dose of exercise for a long life is a bit more than many of us currently believe we should get, but less than many of us might expect. The studies also found that prolonged or intense exercise is unlikely to be harmful and could add years to people’s lives.

No one doubts, of course, that any amount of exercise is better than none. Like medicine, exercise is known to reduce risks for many diseases and premature death.

But unlike medicine, exercise does not come with dosing instructions. The current broad guidelines from governmental and health organizations call for 150 minutes of moderate exercise per week to build and maintain health and fitness.

But whether that amount of exercise represents the least amount that someone should do — the minimum recommended dose — or the ideal amount has not been certain.

Scientists also have not known whether there is a safe upper limit on exercise, beyond which its effects become potentially dangerous; and whether some intensities of exercise are more effective than others at prolonging lives.

So the new studies, both of which were published last week in JAMA Internal Medicine, helpfully tackle those questions.

In the broader of the two studies, researchers with the National Cancer Institute, Harvard University and other institutions gathered and pooled data about people’s exercise habits from six large, ongoing health surveys, winding up with information about more than 661,000 adults, most of them middle-aged.

Using this data, the researchers stratified the adults by their weekly exercise time, from those who did not exercise at all to those who worked out for 10 times the current recommendations or more (meaning that the exercised moderately for 25 hours per week or more).

Then they compared 14 years’ worth of death records for the group.

They found that, unsurprisingly, the people who did not exercise at all were at the highest risk of early death.

But those who exercised a little, not meeting the recommendations but doing something, lowered their risk of premature death by 20 percent.

Those who met the guidelines precisely, completing 150 minutes per week of moderate exercise, enjoyed greater longevity benefits and 31 percent less risk of dying during the 14-year period compared with those who never exercised.

The sweet spot for exercise benefits, however, came among those who tripled the recommended level of exercise, working out moderately, mostly by walking, for 450 minutes per week, or a little more than an hour per day. Those people were 39 percent less likely to die prematurely than people who never exercised.

At that point, the benefits plateaued, the researchers found, but they never significantly declined. Those few individuals engaging in 10 times or more the recommended exercise dose gained about the same reduction in mortality risk as people who simply met the guidelines. They did not gain significantly more health bang for all of those additional hours spent sweating. But they also did not increase their risk of dying young.

The other new study of exercise and mortality reached a somewhat similar conclusion about intensity. While a few recent studies have intimated that frequent, strenuous exercise might contribute to early mortality, the new study found the reverse.

For this study, Australian researchers closely examined health survey data for more than 200,000 Australian adults, determining how much time each person spent exercising and how much of that exercise qualified as vigorous, such as running instead of walking, or playing competitive singles tennis versus a sociable doubles game.

Then, as with the other study, they checked death statistics. And as in the other study, they found that meeting the exercise guidelines substantially reduced the risk of early death, even if someone’s exercise was moderate, such as walking.

But if someone engaged in even occasional vigorous exercise, he or she gained a small but not unimportant additional reduction in mortality. Those who spent up to 30 percent of their weekly exercise time in vigorous activities were 9 percent less likely to die prematurely than people who exercised for the same amount of time but always moderately, while those who spent more than 30 percent of their exercise time in strenuous activities gained an extra 13 percent reduction in early mortality, compared with people who never broke much of a sweat. The researchers did not note any increase in mortality, even among those few people completing the largest amounts of intense exercise.

Of course, these studies relied on people’s shaky recall of exercise habits and were not randomized experiments, so can’t prove that any exercise dose caused changes in mortality risk, only that exercise and death risks were associated.

Still, the associations were strong and consistent and the takeaway message seems straightforward, according to the researchers.

Anyone who is physically capable of activity should try to “reach at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week and have around 20 to 30 minutes of that be vigorous activity,” says Klaus Gebel, a senior research fellow at James Cook University in Cairns, Australia, who led the second study. And a larger dose, for those who are so inclined, does not seem to be unsafe, he said.

Monday 131202

Workout

2x
500m Row
25-Thrusters
15 Pull-ups

Strength
Press + Push Press

From UNC

woman_weights_525

EVEN MILD EXERCISE LOWERS BREAST CANCER RISK

UNC-CHAPEL HILL (US) — Mild or intense exercise, before or after menopause, may reduce the risk of breast cancer, although substantial weight gain may negate the benefits.

Published early online in Cancer, the findings indicate that women can reduce their breast cancer risk by exercising and maintaining their weight.

While studies have shown that physical activity reduces breast cancer risk, many questions remain. For example, how often, how long, and how intense does physical activity have to be to provide benefits? Also, do women with all body types experience a reduced risk when they exercise, and does exercise reduce the risk of all types of breast cancer?

To investigate, Lauren McCullough, a doctoral candidate at the University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health, and her colleagues looked for a link between recreational physical activity, done at different time points in life, and the risk of developing breast cancer.

The study included 1,504 women with breast cancer (233 noninvasive and 1,271 invasive) and 1,555 women without breast cancer who were 20 to 98 years old and were part of the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project, an investigation of possible environmental causes of breast cancer.

Women who exercised either during their reproductive or postmenopausal years had a reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Women who exercised 10 to 19 hours per week experienced the greatest benefit with an approximate 30 percent reduced risk.

Risk reductions were observed at all levels of intensity, and exercise seemed to reduce the risk of hormone receptor positive breast cancers, the most commonly diagnosed tumor type among American women.

“The observation of a reduced risk of breast cancer for women who engaged in exercise after menopause is particularly encouraging given the late age of onset for breast cancer,” McCullough says.

When the researchers looked at the joint effects of physical activity, weight gain, and body size, they found that even active women who gained a significant amount of weight—particularly after menopause—had an increased risk of developing breast cancer, indicating that weight gain can eliminate the beneficial effects of exercise on breast cancer risk.

Co-authors of the study contributed from University of North Carolina Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, as well as Columbia University and Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

Tuesday 131105

Today’s workout contains 1000m. Either make you “Jackie” 1100m today or row an additional 100m after…your call.

Workout
“Jackie”

What?!  Doctors taking kick-backs from drug companies?  Say it isn’t so!  From CNN Money

Johnson & Johnson to pay $2 billion for false marketing

By Gregory Wallace  @gregorywallace November 4, 2013: 6:33 PM ET

johnson johnson risperdal

The settlement involves three drugs, including Risperdal, used to treat schizophrenia.

NEW YORK (CNNMoney)

Johnson & Johnson will pay $2.2 billion to settle charges that the company marketed drugs for unapproved uses and paid “kickbacks” to doctors and nursing homes.

The penalties announced Monday involve fines and forfeiture to the federal government and several states. The settlement involves the schizophrenia drugs Risperdal and Invega, and the heart failure drug Natrecor, the company and Attorney General Eric Holder said.

Johnson & Johnson and two subsidiaries “lined their pockets at the expense of American taxpayers, patients and the private insurance industry,” Holder said.

The penalty amounts to one of the country’s largest health care-related settlements, the Justice Department said.

It also results in what one plaintiff’s attorney called the largest whistleblower payout in U.S. history. Whistleblowers in three states will collect $167.7 million under the False Claims Act.

In 2011, Johnson & Johnson (JNJFortune 500paid Arkansas $1.2 billion in fines for deceptive marketing and making false claims about Risperdal. The Arkansas case involved 239,000 violations of the state’s False Claims Act and 4,600 violations of the Deceptive Trade Practices Act.

On Monday, Johnson & Johnson defended Risperdal “as safe and effective for its approved indications” and said two decades of research shows it is “an important treatment option for people with serious mental illness.”

Risperdal was approved by the Federal Drug Administration to treat schizophrenia but was marketed to doctors and nursing homes as a treatment for elderly patients with dementia.

Johnson & Johnson subsidiary will plead guilty to a misdemeanor misbranding charge stemming from the marketing charges.

The company knew patients on the drug were at increased risk for developing diabetes, but did not publicly acknowledge the risk, according to the settlement. The company also promoted the drug in nursing homes in part by sending paid pharmacists to review patient records.

“Although Read more Tuesday 131105