Friday 151113

Snatch Pull

70% x2
75% x2
80% x2
85% x2
90% x2

5 x5 @90%

From The Huffington Post

stadium eruption illustration

Sports At Any Cost

How College Students Are Bankrolling The Athletics Arms Race

SUNDAY, NOV. 15, 2015, 8:00 PM EDT

Deep within the stadium, the team gathered for a college football ritual. The marching band gave its cue, and the players bounded through a long tunnel, a blue and white blur, pumping fists and high-fiving students who had gathered to cheer.

For a few moments, it was possible to believe that the team’s enthusiasm would be met by the roar of spectators and the full pageantry of gameday in the deep South. But then the tunnel ended, and the team, the Georgia State Panthers, emerged into the largely empty 70,000-seat Georgia Dome, home of the NFL’s Atlanta Falcons.

An announced crowd of 10,252 clustered at midfield clapped politely. But a few minutes after kickoff of this season-opening game, after the home team had fumbled the ball on its opening possession, all the energy had left the building.

The Panthers, now in their sixth season, haven’t given fans much reason to celebrate. In the 2013 and 2014 seasons, competing at the highest level of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, the team recorded just a single victory. Average attendance last year was among the 10 worst in the NCAA’s top level. Yet Georgia State’s 32,000 students are still required to cover much of the costs. Over the past five years, students have paid nearly $90 million in mandatory athletic fees to support football and other intercollegiate athletics — one of the highest contributions in the country.

A river of cash is flowing into college sports, financing a spending spree among elite universities that has sent coaches’ salaries soaring and spurred new discussions about whether athletes should be paid. But most of that revenue is going to a handful of elite sports programs, leaving colleges like Georgia State to rely heavily on students to finance their athletic ambitions.

In the past five years, public universities pumped more than $10.3 billion in mandatory student fees and other subsidies into their sports programs, according to an examination by The Huffington Post and The Chronicle of Higher Education. The review included an inflation-adjusted analysis of financial reports provided to the NCAA by 201 public universities competing in Division I, information that was obtained through public records requests. The average athletic subsidy these colleges and their students have paid to their athletics departments increased 16 percent during that time. Student fees, which accounted for nearly half of all subsidies, increased by 10 percent.

Many universities are demanding that their students pay more to support sports at the same time they are raising tuition, forcing many students to take out bigger loans to pay the bill.

Student fee increases have sparked campus protests at some institutions, and have drawn criticism from lawmakers in some states. A few elite athletic programs bring in so much revenue that they do not require student fees or other subsidies, and some even return cash back to their universities. At the other end of the spectrum are five universities in Virginia, including the College of William & Mary, that charged students an athletics fee that exceeded $1,500 a year during 2014-15, more than most students spend on their annual cell phone bills.

Maxcy quote750

The HuffPost/Chronicle analysis found that subsidization rates tend to be highest at colleges where ticket sales and other revenue is the lowest — meaning that students who have the least interest in their college’s sports teams are often required to pay the most to support them.

Many colleges that heavily subsidize their athletic departments also serve poorer populations than colleges that can depend more on outside revenue for sports. The 50 institutions with the highest athletic subsidies averaged 44 percent more Pell Grant recipients than the 50 institutions with the lowest subsidies during 2012-13, the most recent year available.

At Georgia State, athletic fees totaled $17.6 million in 2014, from a student population in which nearly 60 percent qualify for Pell Grants, the federal aid program for low-income students. The university contributed another $3 million in direct support to its sports programs. All told, those subsidies represented about three-fourths of the athletics budget.

Georgia State is far from an outlier. Last year, sports programs at 47 other public colleges reviewed by The Chronicle and HuffPost were even more dependent on fees and other institutional support as a percentage of their athletic budget.

The growing schism between have and have-not colleges, and the reluctance of universities that rely heavily on subsidies to scale back their spending, has alarmed professors, presidents and even college coaches, who are raising new questions about the long-term viability of major college athletics.

“There’s no one to put the brakes on them,” says Joel Maxcy, a Drexel University economist who studies college sports. “There’s no one to say, ‘No, this is not a sound investment.’”

A Hail Mary

Georgia State, a commuter college located in a largely vacant stretch of downtown Atlanta, had long resisted a move into big-time athletics. Carl Patton, the university’s former president, says students began asking him to add football soon after he took the job, in the early 1990s. For years, he told them: “Not in my lifetime.”

At the time, the university had a series of aging classroom buildings and no on-campus housing. Patton, who retired from the presidency in 2008, oversaw the addition of a student recreation center, a library renovation and the construction of the first dormitories.

As the university evolved into a more traditional campus, Patton reconsidered his earlier opposition to football and commissioned a feasibility study from outside consultants. The study said that the addition of a football program could yield “many intangible benefits,” such as building a sense of community for students.

Most-Subsidized Colleges

Nearly 130 athletic departments rely on subsidies for over half their revenue. Search for a university below or compare them using our Subsidy Scorecards.

Source: 2010-2014 NCAA Financial Reports

All values adjusted for inflation. Read our methodolgy here.

But the report also cautioned that adding football was a gamble, requiring a near doubling of the student athletic fee and straining the university’s finances. “Budget issues raise serious concerns about the feasibility of a successful, self-sustaining program,” the report concluded.

One big problem: Georgia State had almost no history of philanthropy, with donations accounting for just 1 percent of its athletics budget.

Before greenlighting football, the university secured a $1 million commitment from donors to help start a team. The team started playing in 2010 in the Colonial Athletic Association, which competes in the Football Championship Subdivision, the lower of the two Division I football tiers. Soon after, during a wave of conference realignment, Georgia State got an invitation to move into the big leagues.

Bill Curry is a former head football coach at the University of Alabama and Georgia Tech. He led Georgia State’s football team in its first three seasons. Curry says his fledgling team was not ready to move, but that he ultimately agreed to the change and generally supports the university’s investment in the sport. In 2013, Georgia State joined the NCAA’s Football Bowl Subdivision, a group that includes elite powers like Ohio State University, which won the national championship last season.

Since joining the NCAA’s top level, the Panthers have gone 3-29. Curry says he feels bad for the players, but he understands the university’s motivation: Colleges like Georgia State feel tremendous pressure to seize opportunities to enhance their status. As much as anything, he says, it was a play for prestige.

“In America, and especially in sports, you’re not allowed an intelligent timeline,” he says. “You’ve got to take one that launches you so you’re on [ESPN’s] GameDay sooner.”

Curry says his experience at Georgia State led him to believe that some colleges are making “fundamentally flawed” business decisions in a desire to compete at the highest level.

At many mid-tier and smaller institutions, these decisions are fueled by a pressure to keep up with better-financed peers, even though the colleges are unable to tap into the same television and licensing money. Just two dozen universities collect nearly half of the $26 billion in revenue that has flowed into the athletic departments of Division I public colleges in the last five years, according to The Chronicle/HuffPost analysis.

Hundreds of colleges are vying to join this rarified group. In the past two decades, 32 universities have made the leap to Division I. Like Georgia State, the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and the University of Texas at San Antonio, among others, have added football — the sport with the most potential to lead to big paydays. College leaders say such investments help attract prospective students and build connections with donors and other supporters.

More recently, efforts by the wealthiest universities to take better care of their athletes have put new financial pressures on other colleges. In January, the NCAA approved a change allowing Division I programs to offer athletes aid up to the full cost of attendance, which can amount to thousands of dollars a year to help players pay for living expenses.

Many programs in the five most powerful conferences — the Atlantic Coast, Big 10, Big Twelve, Pac-12 and Southeastern — have agreed to pay out $1 million or more in additional aid each year to finance scholarships.

Colleges have rarely dropped sports or moved to a lower, less-expensive, NCAA level in response to added financial pressures. Those few that have considered reducing their athletic commitment have faced a backlash.

Late last year, the president of the University of Alabama at Birmingham announced that his institution planned to drop football, citing the escalating costs of big-time sports and a $20 million budget shortfall.

Six months later, following a public outcry, the university reversed its decision.

UAB plans to bring back its team in 2017, with renewed support from donors. But the athletic department is still projected to have operating deficits through at least 2020, according to a consultant’s report. And its reliance on subsidies is only growing. This year, the university is expected to subsidize more than two-thirds of the athletics budget.

“There’s this illusion that you can wave a magic wand, build all these fabulous stadiums and facilities, and the money’s going to roll in,” Curry says. But the reality is without consistent success on the field, donors will not write the big checks that colleges need to sustain their programs.

“You’ve got this problem all over the country,” he says. “It really is an epidemic.”

“The University Is Now Complete”

The driving force behind Georgia State football is Mark Becker, who took over as president in 2009. A self-described adrenaline junkie whose hobbies include ice climbing, he was a student at Penn State in the 1980s when it won a national championship in football and later worked at the University of Michigan during a Final Four run in basketball. He has seen how sports success can unite alumni and spark interest in a university.

Curry quote750

He has big plans for Georgia State, and football is only part of them. During his seven years there, the university has helped revitalize a dormant part of downtown, buying up abandoned buildings and converting them into high-end spaces to support its growing academic programs, including a law school ranked among the best values in the country.

Georgia State has nearly doubled its research spending in the last few years, to $100 million. Its hands-on approach to student retention has made it a leader in graduating low-income and underrepresented minorities. And its in-state tuition and fees, totaling around $10,000 a year, are about average among public universities.

Its student body, though, is especially sensitive to any extra costs. Pell-eligible students have nearly doubled since 2007, from 32 percent to 59 percent. And in 2012, more than 14,000 Georgia State students had unmet financial need, in some cases more than $15,000 a year. Despite efforts to create a more traditional college atmosphere, about three-fourths of Georgia State students still commute to campus, including many who attend part-time at night. (All fees, including those for athletics, are prorated for students who take fewer than six credit hours.)

While athletic fees have gone up during Becker’s tenure, the overall fee burden for the typical student has not increased. That is partly because the university has retired some other charges that students formerly paid. However, because of a sharp increase in students, overall fee revenue has continued to climb.

Becker says the subsidies are crucial to building a vibrant athletics department and turning Georgia State into a destination campus.

“Great research universities tend to have great athletic programs,” says Becker. With the additions, he says, “the university is now complete.”

The argument that elite universities need elite sports programs is “bogus,” says Nathan Tublitz, a University of Oregon professor and former head of the Coalition on Intercollegiate Athletics, a faculty-led sports watchdog group. “Schools without teams don’t have any problem getting applications.”

The Chronicle/HuffPost analysis of Division I finances suggests that Becker’s dream will be hard to realize. Very few strivers ever reach the upper echelon.

In 2010, 127 universities subsidized more than half of all costs incurred by their athletics department. In 2014, only five of those institutions had managed to boost outside revenue beyond 50 percent.

The Biggest Donors

On campus, views are mixed about what constitutes a reasonable subsidy, and whether students should foot the bill. Subsidies make possible thousands of athletic scholarships, which often go to low-income students who might otherwise not attend college. Without subsidies, many non-revenue sports like track and field and swimming would probably be cut.

Of the more than 100 faculty leaders at public colleges who responded to an online survey conducted by The Chronicle/HuffPost, a majority said they believe college sports benefit all university students. But they were divided about whether students should pay fees to support their college teams.

“Students are our biggest donors,” says Matthew Streb, a political science professor and the faculty athletics representative at Northern Illinois University, where subsidies account for more than two-thirds of the athletic department’s revenue. (About one-third of the department’s revenue comes from student fees, specifically.) Without that money, he says, universities couldn’t offer as many sports or scholarships as they do.

David Hughes is a Rutgers anthropology professor who has sparred with his administration over ballooning subsidies. His university has spent $172 million in the past five years to underwrite intercollegiate sports, more than any college in the country during that time.

The two major forms of subsidies, he says, undermine universities in separate ways. Growing student fees make college more expensive, while rising institutional support threatens the academic mission. “Add these things together,” he says, “and you have students paying more for a lower quality education.”

Research published in January in the Journal of Sport found that students themselves are often unaware of athletic fees or what they are used to support. The study of 3,500 students in the Mid-American Conference found that more than 40 percent of respondents either didn’t know, or were highly uncertain about, whether they paid athletics fees. Many said they were willing to pay fees for student centers or health care, but in general did not support fees for athletics.

Brea Woods, a 20-year-old junior at Georgia State, said she didn’t know she paid an athletics fee, which costs full-time students $554 a year. “That makes me mad because I’m not an athlete,” said Woods, who has taken out $19,000 to finance her education.

The Drake Group, a faculty-led reform group, has encouragedcolleges to adopt restraints on the use of student fees and other institutional subsidies, proposing that colleges establish a dollar limit on what students must pay.

Some states have also waded into the debate. In July, the state auditor’s office in Utah released a report detailing subsidies at the state’s eight public universities. The report, which found subsidies of 50 percent or greater at all but one institution, stopped short of recommending regulations but raised questions about the extent to which NCAA athletics should be subsidized and how responsible students should be for covering those costs.

Earlier this year, responding to concerns that many of the state’s public universities were putting too much of a financial strain on students, the governor of Virginia signed into law a bill that sets limits on the percentage of athletics budgets that can be funded through student fees. The changes, which don’t go into effect until July 2016, vary by NCAA level.

A Striving Institution

Back in the stadium, in September, Georgia State’s season began on a sour note. The team turned the ball over three times in the first half. In a box high above the field, the president watched with growing discomfort.

Becker faces the same dilemma as administrators of other striving programs. He says he wants to reduce the university’s financial support for athletics to less than half of its budget. But doing so requires a big boost in outside revenue, and there is no easy path to get there.

Serranofranklin quote750

Becker has had some modest success at fundraising: Two years before he started, the athletic department was raising just $100,000 a year in private donations. Last year, it brought in more than $1.5 million. But less than $70,000 was earmarked for football. And the team still spends $4.2 million more than it brings in.

The men’s basketball team had a brief moment in the spotlight in the spring, after it knocked off heavily favored Baylor University in the NCAA tournament and a clip of its coach falling out of his chair in excitement went viral. But converting an indelible sports achievement into sustained success — and more revenue — remains a huge hurdle.

Hank Huckaby, chancellor of the University System of Georgia, was seated near the president in his suite. He said he remains skeptical about the viability of the football program.

He has two degrees from Georgia State and was not a proponent of adding football. His biggest concern is the financial burden on students. He says he fields as many complaints about overall student fees as any issue.

Becker’s bold idea to reduce the subsidy: spend even more on athletics. He wants to build a football stadium for his team about a mile from campus. He envisions a modern 25,000- to 30,000-seat facility that offers a livelier game-day environment. He also wants a baseball field and a soccer field, retail shops and student housing. He believes he can secure investments from local real-estate developers and finance more through bonds, a strategy that wouldn’t require a student fee increase.

It might sound crazy — pumping even more money into what has so far been a losing venture — but Becker says students and faculty will get behind him. “As a striving institution,” he says, “taking risk is something people embrace.”

But selling students on the idea of risk is problematic, says William Serrano-Franklin, a master’s student in public administration, because many students won’t be around to see a return on that plan.

“It’s like throwing your chips down on a roulette game,” he says, “and leaving before the ball stops rolling.”

Down on the field, Georgia State mounted a comeback, but ultimately lost 23-20. Becker shook it off.

“At least,” he said, “we won the second half.”

Wednesday 150902

Pause Snatch (above the knee)

80% x2 x2

85% x2 x2

Snatch Pulls

90% x2 x3

From The Huffington Post

Uber Drivers’ Labor Lawsuit Granted Class Action Status In California

This could upend Uber’s business model.


SAN FRANCISCO, Sept 1 (Reuters) – Uber drivers are entitled to class action status in litigation over whether they are independent contractors or employees, a key development in a case threatening Uber’s business model and that of other hot startups dependent on similar service workers.

Three drivers sued Uber in a federal court in San Francisco, contending they are employees and entitled to reimbursement for expenses, including gas and vehicle maintenance. The drivers currently pay those costs themselves.

The results of Uber’s legal battle could reshape the sharing economy, which is built around Internet companies that serve as marketplaces matching people who provide a service with others looking to pay for it.

<span class='image-component__caption' itemprop="caption">A man leaves the headquarters of Uber in San Francisco</span>
CREDIT: ASSOCIATED PRESSA man leaves the headquarters of Uber in San Francisco

In the ruling on Tuesday, U.S. District Judge Edward Chen in San Francisco said California drivers could sue as a group on the question of whether they are employees or contractors, and over their demand for payment of tips that were not passed on to them. Drivers’ attorneys must submit more evidence to sue as a group for reimbursement of other expenses.

Chen also said Uber drivers who have worked for the service since May 2014 must specifically opt out of an arbitration agreement in order to sue the company.

Class action status generally gives plaintiffs more leverage to negotiate a settlement. In a statement, Uber said it will appeal, but that the arbitration portion of Chen’s ruling means a “tiny fraction” of a potential 160,000 California drivers are eligible to be class members. Additionally, one of the three drivers who sued is no longer eligible to represent the class, Uber said.

Shannon Liss-Riordan, a lawyer who represents drivers in the case, said Uber’s characterization of the size of the class is “not correct,” and that “many thousands” will be part of the lawsuit.

“This decision is a major victory for Uber drivers,” Liss-Riordan said.

Uber had argued that the drivers should not be allowed to sue as a group because they have little in common and relate to the company in different ways.

However, Chen wrote that there is an “inherent tension” in Uber’s argument.

“On one hand, Uber argues that it has properly classified every single driver as an independent contractor,” Chen wrote.

On the other, Chen wrote, Uber argues that individual drivers are so unique that the court, “unlike, apparently, Uber itself,” cannot make its own determination.

Uber and other companies, including Lyft and Handy, say the contractor model allows for flexibility that many see as important to their success.

An ultimate finding that drivers are employees could raise Uber’s costs beyond the lawsuit’s scope and force it to pay Social Security, workers’ compensation, and unemployment insurance.

In June, a California labor commissioner ruled that an Uber driver was an employee, not a contractor. Uber has appealed that decision.

The debate has spilled into U.S. presidential politics, with Democratic presidential contender Hillary Clinton in July saying on-demand companies raise “hard questions” about workplace protection and what a good job will look like in the future.

In arguing against class action status, Uber had submitted sworn statements from hundreds of drivers supporting the company. However, Chen rejected this evidence because the statements could have been the product of biased questions.

There is simply “no basis,” Chen wrote, to support Uber’s claim “that some innumerable legion of drivers prefer to remain independent contractors rather than become employees.”

The case is Douglas O’Connor et al v. Uber Technologies Inc, U.S. District Court, Northern District of California, No. 13-3826. (Reporting by Dan Levine; Editing by Tom Brown)

Tuesday 150210

Snatch – Work to a heavy single.
Back off to 75% of that heavy single and complete 7 singles.  Make em look good!
Snatch Grip Push Press – use the same weight and get 5 sets of 5.


3 rounds, each for time, of:
20 chest-to-bar pull-ups
30 wall-ball shots, 20-lb. ball
40 push-ups

Rest 3 minutes between each round.

Only have time for 1 of the above, pick the Strength WOD

From Breaking Muscle


 Guest Contributor

Push ups are the go-to exercise of the universe. They’re used as strength tests in school and in the military, as punishments in gym class, and to impress people on the beach.

In my studio, I use them to assess upper body and torso strength, muscular imbalances, and the ability to move the body as a unit. Unfortunately, most of the people I see have never learned how to do a push up properly, and a large percentage can’t do one full push up.

When I ask to see one push up, people tend to laugh embarrassedly or stare at me as if I’ve just asked them to bench press my car. “Can I do ‘girl’ pushups?” they ask, looking at me hopefully.

Never fear – all is not lost. There are many ways to gain your first full pushup or to improve on the push ups you already have. The tips below should help get you well on your way.

Master the Correct Elbow Position

The biggest mistake I see in pushups is people’s elbows sticking straight out to the sides. If you do them this way, you’re definitely not alone. Michelle Obama’s famous Ellen pushups were done just like that. And I’m not gonna lie – it made me kind of sad.

Think about it this way: if you were going to push, say, a refrigerator across the floor, would you do it with your elbows flared out like an angry chicken? Chances are, you wouldn’t. The way the human body naturally pushes is with the elbows at about a 45-degree angle from your ribs If you’re an elbow flarer, this one fix will significantly change the way your pushups feel.

De-Droopify Your Torso

A droopy torso in a push up also makes me sad. So, for the sake of my happiness, clean it up. A push up is essentially a moving plank. Therefore, your abdominals should be fully involved. A good little trick to find a solid core position is this:

  1. Put your thumbs right on your bottom ribs.
  2. Put your middle fingers right on your hip bones.
  3. Now, without bending your upper body forward, try to bring your ribs and your hips (your middle fingers and your thumbs) closer to each other. Essentially, you’ll be flattening out the curve of your lower back. You should feel your abs flex. If you can’t figure out how to make this work, try squeezing your butt. That usually forces your pelvis into this position.


Maintain a solid core position by bringing your ribs and your hip bones closer together to create a tighter plank.

Put It All Together

In addition to the elements above, a good push up needs you to keep your head neutral (don’t tilt your chin up or down – this is more important than you might think) and your legs locked and together. Your hands should be right underneath your shoulders. (There are plenty of other hand and foot positions that are perfectly legitimate, but we’re just dealing with the basics right now. We’ll get to more advanced stuff later).

“A push up is essentially a moving plank. Therefore, your abdominals should be fully involved.”

Something I like to do in my push ups is to sort of screw my hands into the floor. You’ll want your middle finger to point to twelve o’clock in your push ups every time. With your hands in this position and without moving them, rotate your arms away from your torso. This will engage your lats so they can help your push ups a bit more and will help secure your elbows into the correct position.

What If I Can’t Do a Full Push Up?

Glad you asked! There are lots of ways you can build up your strength.The first thing to do is figure out your sticking point so you can work on it.

Your sticking point is the place at which you can no longer lower yourself down (or push yourself up) with good form. Once you know that, then take one (or more) of the following approaches to power up your push up.

Do Top-Down Work

From the top plank position of your push up, lower yourself slowly and under control all the way to your sticking point. Once you’re there, try holding that position with excellent form for 3-5 seconds. As you get stronger, start to lower and raise yourself just a hair under that point, and then a hair over that point.

Do Bottom-Up Work

Lie on the floor on your stomach with your hands and feet in push up position. Try to push yourself in one solid piece up to your sticking point and practice the raising and lowering sequence. If you can’t push yourself up off the floor, then push into the floor as hard as you can as if you were going to do the push up. Hold this isometric for 3-5 seconds. You just found another sticking point.

Elevate Your Push Ups

Find a bench, sofa arm, table, or other elevated stable object you can put your hands on for push ups. Make sure it’s not too easy. It should be a height that is challenging, but at which you can do a full, chest-to-bottom push up with excellent form. 

Practice your push ups at this height. As you get stronger, use lower and lower surfaces until you reach the floor. I find this method is significantly more effective than “girl push ups” (and I hate that term, too). Your body does not behave the same way from your knees as it does from your toes. If you practice knee push ups, you’ll get very good at knee push ups. Practice full push ups instead.

Do Negatives

From the top position of your push up, lower yourself as slowly as you can all the way to the floor with excellent form. Reset and repeat. If you can’t do this with full range of motion, elevate your body until you are at an angle that works for you and progress from there.

Do Positives

From the floor, push yourself under control and with perfect form all the way to the top position. Reset and repeat. If you can’t do this with full range of motion, elevate your body until you are at an angle that works for you and progress from there.

How to Progress After Your First Push Ups

If you can already do some decent pushups and would like to increase your strength or reps, increasing your range of motion can help you. I like to use two kettlebells for this.  With perfect form, lower to the absolute end range of motion you can manage – without pain, of course – and practice that way. Push ups off the floor should come a lot easier if you master these.

Accessory Exercises to Help Your Push Ups

  • Tricep exercisesYour triceps straighten your arm at the elbow, so getting them strong can help any sort of pressing exercise. Overhead extensions, skull-crushers, bent-over extensions, pulldowns, and dips are just some of the exercises you can use to build tricep strength.
  • Planks and bananasAs I mentioned before, a push up is essentially a moving plank. Practicing hollow position and planks for time (both from your hands and from your elbows) can help strengthen a droopy torso. (For a full description of “bananas,” see my pull up article).
  • Bench press The bench press is a great way to strengthen your chest and all the muscles that assist pressing from the chest. Obviously, abdominal stabilization will not come into play as much with bench press, but it’s a great way to learn how to push a lot of weight.

Once you’ve mastered the push up, you can play with it a million different ways.

Wherever you are with your push up progressions, practice a few variations several times per week, and you’ll get stronger and better with time. Enjoy the ride, and let me know how it goes!

At 5’0” and 100lbs of vegan fury, Melody Schoenfeld is a certified, highly educated personal trainer with almost 20 years of training experience in many different disciplines. Melody is a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist with the NSCA, a level 2 RKC, a CK-FMS, a Certified Nutrition Specialist, a Certified Indian Clubs Specialist, and is Z-Health R, I, S, and T Phase certified. She is also a CAMTC Certified Massage Therapist specializing in a hybrid of trigger point,… Read More